Grunge stamps 'CIA', 'confidential'
American History

America’s Spy Network: What Does It Do?

April 2, 2021

The intelligence life cycle begins when decision-makers identify information they need to know, and the intelligence community attempts to collect the data relevant to the question and provide its best analysis of what that data forecasts. […]

The security eye logo.
American History

America’s Intelligence Community: An Overview

April 1, 2021

When the Congress reviewed the situation after 9/11, they didn’t like what they saw. The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 established the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI). The resulting structure is more or less a federation intended to maximize the effectiveness of intelligence collection and dissemination among 17 member agencies while maintaining independence of action among each. […]

Photo of ancient dragon design on walls.
History

The Boxer Uprising in China

April 1, 2021

The society of ‘Righteous and Harmonious Fists’, called ‘Boxers’ for short, was a secret society. They loathed all foreigners and, in collaboration with Cixi’s imperial officers, sieged all foreign legations in Beijing. However, an international military force was able to rescue the besieged inhabitants and put an end to the Boxer uprising. […]

Portrait of emperor Guangxu
History

China’s Hundred Days of Reform: The Beginning and the End

April 1, 2021

Based on the reform proposals by Kang Youwei, emperor Guangxu issued imperial edicts and began the Hundred Days of Reform. However, these reforms were opposed by dowager empress Cixi and ultra-conservative court officials, and they organised a palace coup and took back the power. Many secret societies also emerged during this time period. […]

Image of Chongling Stele Pavilion.
History

The Beginning of China’s Reform Movement

March 31, 2021

After the failure of the Self-Strengthening Movement, a bold new reform movement began with the aim to overhaul China’s economic and political institutions. Groups of reformers converged to initiate a lobbying campaign in an effort to gain high level imperial support for fundamental social change. […]

European History

The Black Death: How It Ravaged Florence

March 30, 2021

The 1300s saw one of the worst pandemics in the human history. The bubonic plague, also known as the Black Death, made its way into the Italian Peninsula and laid waste to one of the most advanced community of medieval times. […]

A close up of Native American woman.
American History

Native Southeast and the British in the 1700s

March 30, 2021

In the Southeast, increased social and economic interactions with colonists made it increasingly difficult for Native people to control the rate and shape of change. Their search for common ground was challenged even more by the spread of diseases, the expansion of slavery, and the onset of war. […]

Illustration of North American Indian chief.
American History

The Natives of Great Lakes Region and the French Newcomers

March 30, 2021

What was it that held this nonstate world of the villages in Ohio Country together? Well, for one thing, they shared a common space, many of them due to the shared experience of being forced from their own homelands into a new area. And because of that, many of them also frequently shared a common enemy—the Iroquois. […]

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